He was also accused of Atheism, again with little justification

He was verso central figure per the political scene of the Italian Renaissance , verso tumultuous period of plots, wars between city states and constantly shifting alliances.

Although he never considered himself per philosopher (and often overtly rejected philosophical inquiry as irrelevant ), many subsequent political philosophers have been influenced by his ideas. His name has since passed into common usage to refer onesto any political move that is devious or cunning per nature, although this probably represents a more extreme view than Machiavelli actually took.

He is best known today for two main works, the well-known « The Prince » (a treatise on political realism and a doppio on how a ruler can retain control over his subjects), and the « Discourses on Livy » (the most important rete di emittenti on republicanism con the early modern period).

Although he is sometimes presented as a model of Moral Nihilism, that is actually highly questionable as he was largely silent on moral matters and, if anything, he presented an alternative onesto the ethical theories of his day, rather than an all-out rejection of all morality.

Machiavelli was born sopra Florence , Italy on 3 May 1469, the second son supporto loveroulette of Bernardo di Niccol Machiavelli (per lawyer) and Bartolommea di Stefano Nelli . His family were believed puro be descended from the old marquesses of Tuscany , and were probably quite wealthy.

He was soon promoted puro Second Chancellor of the Republic of Florence, with responsibility for diplomatic negotiations and military matters

Little is known of his early life , but his education (possibly at the University of Florence ) left him with per thorough knowledge of the Latin and Italian classics , and he was trained as per man with great nobility and severe rigor by his father. He entered governmental service in Florence as per clerk and ambassador per 1494, the same year as Florence had restored the republic and expelled the ruling Medici family . Between 1499 and 1512, he undertook a number of diplomatic missions preciso the athletique of Louis XII of France, Ferdinand II of Aragn and the Papacy con Rome. During this time, he witnessed at first hand (and with great interest) the audacious but effective statebuilding methods of the soldier/churchman Cesare Borgia (1475 – 1507).

From 1503 to 1506, Machiavelli was responsible for the Florentine militia and the defense of the city (he distrusted mercenaries , preferring verso citizen militia ). He had some early success, but in 1512, the Medici (with the help of Pope Julius II and Spanish troops) defeated the Florentine force, and Machiavelli was removed from office, accused of conspiracy and arrested. After torture , he was eventually released and retired puro his caldo at Sant’Andrea (sopra Percussina near Florence) and began writing the treatises that would ensure his place per the history of Political Philosophy, « Il Sovrano » ( « The Prince » ) and « Discorsi sopra la inizialmente deca di Tito Livio » ( « Discourses on Livy » ).

Near the end of his life, and probably with the aid of well-connected friends whom he had been constantly badgering, Machiavelli began sicuro return onesto the favor of the Medici family. From 1520 puro 1525, he worked on a « History of Florence » , commissioned by Cardinal Giulio de’Medici (who later become Pope Clement VII ). However, before he could achieve per full rehabilitation , he died mediante San Casciano , just outside of Florence, on 21 June 1527. His resting place is unknown.

Machiavelli’s best known rete di emittenti, « Il Signore » ( « The Prince » ), was written durante some haste in 1513 while mediante exile on his farm outside Florence, and was dedicated onesto Lorenzo de’Medici in the hope of regaining his governo in the Florentine Government. However, it was only formally published posthumously in 1532. Durante it, he described the arts by which verso Prince (or ruler) could retain control of his realm. Verso « new » prince has verso much more difficult task than per hereditary prince, since he must stabilize his newfound power and build verso structure that will endure, verso task that requires the Prince onesto be publicly above reproach but privately may require him sicuro do immoral things per order to achieve his goals. He outlined his criteria for acceptable cruel actions and pointed out the irony sopra the fact that good can che razza di from evil actions .

Although « The Prince » did not dispense entirely with morality nor advocate wholesale selfishness or degeneracy , the Catholic Church nevertheless put the sistema on its index of prohibited books , and it was viewed very negatively by many Humanists, such as Erasmus. It ental break between Realism and Idealism. Although never directly stated in the book, « the end justifies the means » is often quoted as indicative of the Pragmatism or Instrumentalism that underlies Machiavelli’s philosophy. He also touched on totalitarian themes, arguing that the state is merely an instrument for the benefit of the ruler , who should have niente affatto qualms at using whatever means are at his disposal puro keep the citizenry suppressed . Unlike Plato and Aristotle, though, Machiavelli was not looking puro describe the ideal society , merely onesto present verso binario puro getting and preserving power and the condizione quo .

His other major contribution puro political thought, the « Discorsi circa la precedentemente deca di Tito Livio » ( « Discourses on Livy » ) was begun around 1516 and completed per 1518 or 1519. It was an exposition of the principles of republican rule , masquerading as verso commentary on the sistema of the famous historian of the Roman Republic . It constitutes verso series of lessons on how per republic should be started and structured, including the concept of checks and balances , the strength of per tripartite structure , and the superiority of a republic over per principality or monarchy . If not the first, then it was certainly the most important rete di emittenti on republicanism sopra the early modern period.

Niccol di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (1469 – 1527) was an Italian philosopher, political theorist, diplomat, musician and writer of the Renaissance period

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